He was a democratic socialist and has written the Animal Farm to criticize the Stalin era. The major events in the book are based on Soviet Union. The novel is about a group of animals who take control of the farm on which they live and out throw humans. In the story pigs; Napoleon and Snowball, govern the farm, being the leaders.
His principle of equal consideration of interests does not dictate equal treatment of all those with interests, since different interests warrant different treatment. All have an interest in avoiding pain, for instance, but relatively few have an interest in cultivating their abilities. Not only does his principle justify different treatment for different interests, but it allows different treatment for the same interest when diminishing marginal utility is a factor.
For example, this approach would privilege a starving person's interest in food over the same interest of someone who is only slightly hungry. Among the more important human interests are those in avoiding pain, in developing one's abilities, in satisfying basic needs for food and shelter, in enjoying warm personal relationships, in being free to pursue one's projects without interference, "and many others".
Singer holds that a being's interests should always be weighed according to that being's concrete properties. The journey model is tolerant of some frustrated desire and explains why persons who have embarked on their journeys are not replaceable. Only a personal interest in continuing to live brings the journey model into play.
This model also explains the priority that Singer attaches to interests over trivial desires and pleasures. Ethical conduct is justified by reasons that go beyond prudence to "something bigger than the individual", addressing a larger audience.
Singer thinks this going-beyond identifies moral reasons as "somehow universal", specifically in the injunction to 'love thy neighbour as thyself', interpreted by him as demanding that one give the same weight to the interests of others as one gives to one's own interests.
This universalising step, which Singer traces from Kant to Hare, : Universalisation leads directly to utilitarianism, Singer argues, on the strength of the thought that one's own interests cannot count for more than the interests of others.
Taking these into account, one must Animal farm essay thesis them up and adopt the course of action that is most likely to maximise the interests of those affected; utilitarianism has been arrived at. Singer's universalising step applies to interests without reference to who has them, whereas a Kantian's applies to the judgments of rational agents in Kant's kingdom of ends, or Rawls 's Original Position, etc.
Singer regards Kantian universalisation as unjust to animals. Effective altruism and world poverty[ edit ] Main article: Effective altruism Singer at an effective altruism conference in Melbourne in Singer's ideas have contributed to the rise of effective altruism.
While Singer has previously written at length about the moral imperative to reduce poverty and eliminate the suffering of nonhuman animals, particularly in the meat industryhe writes about how the effective altruism movement is doing these things more effectively in his book, The Most Good You Can Do.
He is a board member of Animal Charity Evaluators, a charity evaluator used by many members of the effective altruism community which recommends the most cost-effective animal advocacy charities and interventions.
TLYCS was founded after Singer released his eponymous bookin which he argues more generally in favour of giving to charities that help to end global poverty. In particular, he expands upon some of the arguments made in his essay " Famine, Affluence, and Morality ", in which he posits that citizens of rich nations are morally obligated to give at least some of their disposable income to charities that help the global poor.
He supports this using the drowning child analogy, which states that most people would rescue a drowning child from a pond, even if it meant that their expensive clothes were ruined, so we clearly value a human life more than the value of our material possessions.
As a result, we should take a significant portion of the money that we spend on our possessions and instead donate it to charity.
Published inAnimal Liberation  has been cited as a formative influence on leaders of the modern animal liberation movement.
There are far more differences, for instance, between a great ape and an oyster, for example, than between a human and a great ape, and yet the former two are lumped together as "animals", whereas we are considered "human" in a way that supposedly differentiates us from all other "animals.
Ryder to describe the practice of privileging humans over other animals, and therefore argues in favour of the equal consideration of interests of all sentient beings. Singer describes himself as a flexible vegan.
He writes, "That is, I'm vegan when it's not too difficult to be vegan, but I'm not rigid about this, if I'm traveling for example. In a Guardian article he titled, "Fish: He quoted author Alison Mood's startling statistics from a report she wrote, which was released on fishcount.
Singer states that she "has put together what may well be the first-ever systematic estimate of the size of the annual global capture of wild fish.
It is, she calculates, in the order of one trillon, although it could be as high as 2. Animal Testing and said that he felt that Tipu Aziz 's experiments on monkeys for research into treating Parkinson's disease could be justified.
Singer has defended some of the actions of the Animal Liberation Frontsuch as the stealing of footage from Dr. Thomas Gennarelli's laboratory in May as shown in the documentary Unnecessary Fussbut he has condemned other actions such as the use of explosives by some animal-rights activists and sees the freeing of captive animals as largely futile when they are easily replaced.
Singer himself adopted utilitarianism on the basis that people's preferences can be universalised, leading to a situation where one takes the "point of view of the universe" and "an impartial standpoint".
But in the Second Edition of Practical Ethics, he concedes that the question of why we should act morally "cannot be given an answer that will provide everyone with overwhelming reasons for acting morally". Additionally, he endorses Derek Parfit 's view that there are object-given reasons for action.
He says that evolutionary psychology suggests that humans naturally tend to be self-interested. He further argues that the evidence that selfish tendencies are natural must not be taken as evidence that selfishness is "right.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
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Want to know: why did George Orwell Write Animal Farm. because George Orwell, aka Eric Arthur Blair, want to expose the Soviet myth of socialism.
Tom Regan (/ ˈ r eɪ ɡ ən /; November 28, – February 17, ) was an American philosopher who specialized in animal rights theory. He was professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, where he had taught from until his retirement in Regan was the author of numerous books on the philosophy of animal rights, including The Case for Animal Rights (