An assessment of hand hygiene perception and practices among undergraduate nursing students in Lagos State: The contaminated hands of health-care professionals HCPs is an implicated vector in the transmission of potentially pathogenic organisms to vulnerable patients. The aim of this study was to derive baseline data on hand hygiene HH practices among a cohort of students at the Lagos State School of Nursing and to determine their perception about the adequacy of instructions they receive. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on a probability random sample of 69 nursing students at the Lagos State School of Nursing at the Alimosho Igando General Hospital.
Several sequelae can result from C. Some women who receive a diagnosis of uncomplicated cervical infection already have subclinical upper-reproductive—tract infection.
Asymptomatic infection is common among both men and women. To detect chlamydial infections, health-care providers frequently rely on screening tests. Chlamydia screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce the rates of PID in womenAlthough evidence is insufficient to recommend routine screening for C.
Among women, the primary focus of chlamydia screening efforts should be to detect chlamydia, prevent complications, and test and treat their partners, whereas targeted chlamydia screening in men should only be considered when resources permit, prevalence is high, and such screening does not hinder chlamydia screening efforts in womenMore frequent screening for some women e.
NAATs are the most sensitive tests for these specimens and therefore are recommended for detecting C. NAATs that are FDA-cleared for use with vaginal swab specimens can be collected by a provider or self-collected in a clinical setting.
Self-collected vaginal swab specimens are equivalent in sensitivity and specificity to those collected by a clinician using NAATs, and women find this screening strategy highly acceptableOptimal urogenital specimen types for chlamydia screening using NAAT include first catch-urine men and vaginal swabs women Rectal and oropharyngeal C.
However, NAATs have been demonstrated to have improved sensitivity and specificity compared with culture for the detection of C.
Some laboratories have established CLIA-defined performance specifications when evaluating rectal and oropharyngeal swab specimens for C. Most persons with C. However, when gonorrhea testing is performed at the oropharyngeal site, chlamydia test results might be reported as well because some NAATs detect both bacteria from a single specimen.
Data indicate that performance of NAATs on self-collected rectal swabs is comparable to clinician-collected rectal swabs, and this specimen collection strategy for rectal C.
Self-collected rectal swabs are a reasonable alternative to clinician-collected rectal swabs for C. Previous evidence suggests that the liquid-based cytology specimens collected for Pap smears might be acceptable specimens for NAAT testing, although test sensitivity using these specimens might be lower than that associated with use of cervical or vaginal swab specimens ; regardless, certain NAATs have been FDA-cleared for use on liquid-based cytology specimens.
Treatment Treating persons infected with C. Treating pregnant women usually prevents transmission of C. Chlamydia treatment should be provided promptly for all persons testing positive for infection; treatment delays have been associated with complications e.
These studies were conducted primarily in populations with urethral and cervical infection in which follow-up was encouraged, adherence to a 7-day regimen was effective, and culture or EIA rather than the more sensitive NAAT was used for determining microbiological outcome.
More recent retrospective studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for rectal C. Although the clinical significance of oropharyngeal C.
The efficacy of alternative antimicrobial regimens in resolving oropharyngeal chlamydia remains unknown. In a double-blinded randomized control trial, a doxycycline delayed-release mg tablet administered daily for 7 days was as effective as generic doxycycline mg twice daily for 7 days for treatment of urogenital C.
However, this regimen is more costly than those that involve multiple daily doses Delayed-release doxycycline Doryx mg daily for 7 days might be an alternative regimen to the doxycycline mg twice daily for 7 days for treatment of urogenital C.
Erythromycin might be less efficacious than either azithromycin or doxycycline, mainly because of the frequent occurrence of gastrointestinal side effects that can lead to nonadherence with treatment.
Levofloxacin and ofloxacin are effective treatment alternatives, but they are more expensive and offer no advantage in the dosage regimen. Other quinolones either are not reliably effective against chlamydial infection or have not been evaluated adequately.
Other Management Considerations To maximize adherence with recommended therapies, onsite, directly observed single-dose therapy with azithromycin should always be available for persons for whom adherence with multiday dosing is a concern.
In addition, for multidose regimens, the first dose should be dispensed on site and directly observed. To minimize disease transmission to sex partners, persons treated for chlamydia should be instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse for 7 days after single-dose therapy or until completion of a 7-day regimen and resolution of symptoms if present.
To minimize risk for reinfection, patients also should be instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse until all of their sex partners are treated. Follow-Up Test-of-cure to detect therapeutic failure i. A high prevalence of C. Most post-treatment infections do not result from treatment failure, but rather from reinfection caused by failure of sex partners to receive treatment or the initiation of sexual activity with a new infected partner, indicating a need for improved education and treatment of sex partners.
Repeat infections confer an elevated risk for PID and other complications in women. Men and women who have been treated for chlamydia should be retested approximately 3 months after treatment, regardless of whether they believe that their sex partners were treatedIf retesting at 3 months is not possible, clinicians should retest whenever persons next present for medical care in the month period following initial treatment.
Among heterosexual patients, if health department partner management strategies e.Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA) improves the health of British Columbians by seeking province-wide solutions to specialized health care needs in . For research, for health, for our future. The Institut Pasteur.
History. Alphonse Laveran () André Lwoff (). Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is a problem for infected individuals and health services. Chlamydia is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the UK [ 1 ], with a large proportion of cases asymptomatic, and untreated infection can lead to serious complications for men and women.
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection can spread through the genital tract from various types of sexual contact.
Sexually transmitted infection; Synonyms: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), venereal diseases (VD) "Syphilis is a dangerous disease, but it can be cured.". Advances in a range of analytical and fabrication technologies, such as (1) thin film sensors, (2) semiconductor engineering, (3) plastic molding, (4) microfluidics, (5) nanotechnology, and (6) consumer electronics, have made it possible to adapt most of the methods used in the laboratory to the point-of-care setting.
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