Brain death no neuronal activity Pallor mortispaleness which happens in the 15— minutes after death Livor mortisa settling of the blood in the lower dependent portion of the body Algor mortisthe reduction in body temperature following death. This is generally a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortisthe limbs of the corpse become stiff Latin rigor and difficult to move or manipulate Decompositionthe reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor. For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases.
Except when struck down on the battlefield or by accident, people died in the company of family and friends. There were no physicians or religious personnel present. Ancient physicians generally removed themselves when cases became hopeless, and priests and priestesses served their gods rather than ordinary people.
Contact with a corpse caused ritual impurity and hence ritual activity around the deathbed was minimal.
A relative might bestow a final kiss or attempt to catch a dying person's last breath.
The living Death as life the eyes and mouth of the deceased, perhaps placing a coin for the underworld ferryman on the tongue or eyelids. They then washed the corpse, anointed it with scented oil and herbs, and dressed it, sometimes in clothing befitting the social status of the deceased, sometimes in a shroud.
A procession accompanied the body to the necropolis outside the city walls. There it was laid to rest, or cremated and given an urn burial, in a family plot that often contained a structure to house the dead. Upon returning from the funeral, the family purified themselves and the house through rituals of fire and water.
Beyond such more or less shared features, funeral rites, as well as forms of burial and commemoration, varied as much as the people and the ecology of the region in which Christianity developed and spread.
Cremation was the most common mode of disposal in the Roman Empire, but older patterns of corpse burial persisted in many areas, especially in Egypt and the Middle East. Christianity arose among Jews, who buried their dead, and the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus were its defining events.
Although Christians practiced inhumation corpse burial from the earliest times, they were not, as often assumed, responsible for the gradual disappearance of cremation in the Roman Empire during the second and third centuries, for common practice was already changing before Christianity became a major cultural force.
However, Christianity was, in this case, in sync with wider patterns of cultural change. Hope of salvation and attention to the fate of the body and the soul after death were more or less common features of all the major religious movements of the age, including the Hellenistic mysteries, Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism, Manichaeanism, and Mahayana Buddhism, which was preached as far west as Alexandria.
Early Christian Responses to Death and Dying In spite of the centrality of death in the theology and spiritual anthropology of early Christians, they were slow to develop specifically Christian responses to death and dying.
The most immediate change was that Christians handled the bodies of the dead without fear of pollution.
The purification of baptism was permanent, unless marred by mortal sin, and the corpse of a Christian prefigured the transformed body that would be resurrected into eternal life at the end of time.
The Christian living had less need than their neighbors to appease their dead, who were themselves less likely to return as unhappy ghosts. Non-Christians noted the joyous mood at Christian funerals and the ease of the participants in the presence of the dead. They observed how Christians gave decent burials to even the poorest of the poor.
Normal Roman practice was to dump them in large pits away from the well-kept family tombs lining the roads outside the city walls. The span of a Christian biography stretched from death and rebirth in baptism, to what was called the "second death," to final resurrection.
In a sense, then, baptism was the first Christian death ritual. In the fourth century Bishop Ambrose of Milan — taught that the baptismal font was like a tomb because baptism was a ritual of death and resurrection. Bishop Ambrose also urged baptized Christians to look forward to death with joy, for physical death was just a way station on the road to paradise.
Some of his younger contemporaries, like Augustine of Hippo, held a different view. Baptism did not guarantee salvation, preached Augustine; only God could do that.
The proper response to death ought to be fear—of both human sinfulness and God's inscrutable judgment. This more anxious attitude toward death demanded a pastoral response from the clergy, which came in the form of communion as viaticum provisions for a journeyoriginally granted to penitents by the first ecumenical council at Niceaand extended to all Christians in the fifth and sixth centuries.
There is, however, evidence that another type of deathbed communion was regularly practiced as early as the fourth century, if not before. The psalms, prayers, and symbolic representations in the old Roman death ritual discussed by the historian Frederick Paxton are in perfect accord with the triumphant theology of Ambrose of Milan and the Imperial Church.
The rite does not refer to deathbed communion as viaticum, but as "a defender and advocate at the resurrection of the just" Paxtonp. Nor does it present the bread and wine as provisions for the soul's journey to the otherworld, but as a sign of its membership in the community of the saved, to be rendered at the last judgment.
Thanks, in part, to the preservation and transmission of this Roman ritual, the Augustinian point of view did not sweep all before it and older patterns of triumphant death persisted.Tally of all the unfortunate deaths and injuries that have ruined the holidays for Black Friday shoppers; violent shootings, pepper-spray accidents and shocking tramplings.
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Welcome to the Death Clock(TM), the Internet's friendly reminder that life is slipping away second by second. Like the hourglass of the Net, the Death Clock will remind you just how short life is. “On the death of a friend, we should consider that the fates through confidence have devolved on us the task of a double living, that we have henceforth to fulfill the promise of our friend's life also, in our own, to the world.”.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury.
In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.