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The long shadow of Frankenstein Several reports in psychological journals delve into the state of mind of its author when she first imagined the tale during the summer of She was 18, accompanying her married lover, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.
It was the "year without a summer," a climatic anomaly caused by the eruption of Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies, and endless rain and gray skies kept the guests cooped up. Byron suggested as a party game that they each write a ghost story.
Mary and Percy had a 6-month-old baby together, but had lost another baby a year earlier.
The "background facts to her nightmare," Britton writes, invoking Freud, "opened a door to unconscious phantasies of a dreadful scene of childbirth. More horrors were to follow for Shelley after she completed the novel. But she called on science, not psychology, in explaining how she "came to think of, and dilate upon, so very hideous an idea" at 18 years of age.
It was Percy who may have acquainted her with galvanism, which Frankenstein explicitly mentions as the key to reanimation in the edition. Over time, the influence ran from the novel back to science.
Indeed, many scientific studies proudly reference Frankenstein, mainly because they combine disparate parts to create a novel entity that the researchers present as delightfully chimeric.
A milk sugar enzyme fused with a carrier protein. An atlas of the head and neck to guide radiotherapy, created by merging views from different patients. A face recognition study that swapped the eyes, noses, and mouths of former President George W. Bush and former U.
Secretary of State Colin Powell. A "Frankenrig" used to create 3D animations, made by mixing and matching bones from different skeletons. The Frankenstein effect," note that Aldini ultimately aimed to transplant a human head, using electricity to spark it back into awareness.
Many scientists have called the project unfeasible and unethical, but last November, two of the co-authors announced to the media that they had performed a head transplant on a human corpse and soon planned to publish details.
But by far the bulk of the scientific literature hand-wrings, ponders, and philosophizes about the most familiar form of the Frankenstein myth, which Shelley flicked at in her "Modern Prometheus" subtitle: Reanimation was in fashion in Scottish doctor Andrew Ure attempted the feat on a corpse.
Craig Venter, a pioneer in genomics based in San Diego, California, has been called a Frankenstein for his effort to create artificial bacteria with the smallest possible genomes. He thinks Shelley "would highly appreciate" his work.
If scientists challenge this phrase, it will have less impact. Evil, but "to banish disease from the human frame and render man invulnerable to any but a violent death.
What technologies might give rise to her iconic creature?The effect was named after the scientist Luigi Galvani who investigated the effect of electricity on dissected animals in the s and s. In he discovered that when a frog's legs are touched by both a copper probe and a piece of iron at the same time .
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This effect was named by Alessandro Volta after his contemporary, the scientist Luigi Galvani, who investigated the effect of electricity on dissected animals in the 's and 's.
Galvani himself referred to the phenomenon as animal electricity, believing that he . B.C. Thales of Miletus - Greek philosopher; developed theory of matter based upon water; recorded the attractive properties of rubbed amber and lodestone.: c B.C. Heraclitus - Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; he spoke of the logos that is common to all.
Galvani's nephew, Giovanni Aldini, was a fierce partisan of animal electricity, yet he did not ignore Volta's pile.
Aldini used it to tour the capitals of Europe and demonstrate the medical benefits of electricity -- . VOLTA'S LIFE AND WORKS Volta's localities Chronology Selected reference.
Alessandro Volta was born on February 18, , in the town of Como located on a wonderful lake in north Italy, and christened on the following day, the 19th, in St. Donnino's in whose parish .