The necessity of commentary, like poetic necessity, is the very form of exiled speech.
Structuralism and Literary Criticism: Gerard Genette Gerard Genette: How is it applied to the study of literature? It is the offshoot of certain developments in linguistics and anthropology.
Using the Saussurian linguistic model, Claude Levi-Strauss examined the customs and conventions of some cultures with a view of arriving at the grammar of those cultures.
Structuralist criticism aims at forming a poetics or the science of literature from a study of literary works. The best work in structuralist poetics has been done in the field of narrative. In literary theory, structuralism is an approach to analyzing the narrative material by examining the underlying invariant structure.
For example, a literary critic applying a structuralist literary theory might say that the authors of West Side Story did not write anything "really" new, because their work has the same structure as Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Structuralistic literary criticism argues that the "novelty value of a literary text" can lie only in new structure, rather than in the specifics of character development and voice in which that structure is expressed.
This is precisely so, so far as structuralism is concerned. But it is applied also to the study of philosophy, literature and other sciences of humanity. Structuralism as a method is peculiarly imitable to literary criticism which is a discourse upon a discourse [ii].
Levi-Strauss is quite right when he says that the critic always puts something of himself into the works he read. The Structuralist method of criticism: Literature, being primarily a work of language, and structuralism in its part, being preeminently a linguistic method, the most probable encounter should obviously take place on the terrain of linguistic material.
Sound, forms, words and sentences constitute the common object of the linguist and the philologist to much an extent that it was possible, in the early Russian Formalist movement, to define literature as a mere dialect, and to envisage its study as an annex of general dialectology.
Traditional criticism regards criticism as a message without code; Russian Formalism regards literature as code without message. Meaning is yielded by the structural relationship within a given work. It is not introduced from outside.
The ambition of structuralism is not confined to counting feet and to observe the repetition of phonemes: It is in this reference that Genette writes: There would be linguistics of discourse that was a translinguistics.
Genette empathetically defines Structuralism as a method is based on the study of structures wherever they occur. Genette is of the view that any analysis that confines itself to a work without considering its sources or motives would be implicitly structuralist, and the structural method ought to intervene in order to give this immanent study a sort of rationality of understanding that would replace the rationality of explanation abandoned with the search of causes.
Unlike Russian Formalist, Structuralists like Genette gave importance to thematic study also. Genette believes that structural criticism is untainted by any of the transcendent reductions of psychoanalysis or Marxist explanation.
Thus to conclude we may say, the structuralist idea is to follow literature in its overall evolution, while making synchronic cuts at various stages and comparing the tables one with another. Literary evolution then appears in all its richness, which derives from the fact that the system survives while constantly altering.
In this sense literary history becomes the history of a system: Part II Application of Structuralism: He is largely responsible for the reintroduction of a rhetorical vocabulary into literary criticism, for example such terms as trope and metonymy. Additionally his work on narrative, best known in English through the selection Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Methodhas been of importance.
His major work is the multi-part Figures series, of which Narrative Discourse is a section. Terms and techniques originating in his vocabulary and systems have, however, become widespread, such as the term paratext for prefaces, introductions, illustrations or other material accompanying the text, or hypotext for the sources of the text.
Important concepts in Genette's narratology This outline of Genette's narratology is derived from Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. One criticism which had been used against previous forms of narratology was that they could deal only with simple stories, such as Vladimir Propp 's work in Morphology of the Folk Tale.
If narratology could cope with Proust, this could no longer be said. Below are the five main concepts used by Genette in Narrative Discourse: They are primarily used to look at the syntax of narratives, rather than to perform an interpretation of them. Order Say a story is as follows: Arranged chronologically the events run A1, B2, C3.
Arranged in the text they may run B1 discoveryA2 flashbackC3 resolution.Levi Strauss: polarities and deconstruction In the book, Introducing Levi-Strauss, Claude Levi-Strauss states his views of structuralism, the systems, and their opposites.
He uses polarities . 网易云音乐是一款专注于发现与分享的音乐产品，依托专业音乐人、dj、好友推荐及社交功能，为用户打造全新的音乐生活。. But comparison was an early impulse trapped in the very polarities of Modernism that Postmodernism rejected. Nevertheless, establishing pairs of opposites allowed Postmodern thought to distinguish itself from its the ancestor before the new generation could go forward on its own terms.
Ihab Hassen’s essay “Towards a Concept of. The main section of “Structure, Sign and Play,” is concerned with the trouble that Levi-Strauss gets into when trying simultaneously to operate with scientific principles (empiricism) and those that confirm the “ structuration ” principles typical of Nietzsche, Heidegger and Freud (bricolage).
In order to question the revolutionary potential still attributed to deconstruction, I propose a close reading of Derrida's deconstruction of Levi-Strauss in his 'Structure, Sign . Derrida's deconstruction of Levi-Strauss in his 'Structure, Sign and Play in the History seminal essay 'Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences'.
It is, Remembering and Dismembering: Derrida's Reading of Levi-Strauss 89 Derrida's method, and philosophy, might be best understood on the example of his.