Integration and coordination An organization is a continuing system, able to distinguish and integrate human activities. The organization utilizes, transforms and joins together a set of human, material and other resources for problem-solving Bakke, The main function of an organization is to satisfy specific human needs in interaction with other sub-systems of human activities and resources in the given environment.
Classical Organization Theory Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory.
Frederick Taylor developed scientific management theory often called "Taylorism" at the beginning of this century.
His theory had four basic principles: Initially, Taylor was very successful at improving production. His methods involved getting the best equipment and people, and then carefully scrutinizing each component of the production process.
By analyzing each task individually, Taylor was able to find the right combinations of factors that yielded large increases in production. While Taylor's scientific management theory proved successful in the simple industrialized companies at the turn of the century, it has not faired well in modern companies.
The philosophy of "production first, people second" has left a legacy of declining production and quality, dissatisfaction with work, loss of pride in workmanship, and a near complete loss of organizational pride.
Max Weber expanded on Taylor's theories, and stressed the need to reduce diversity and ambiguity in organizations. The focus was on establishing clear lines of authority and control.
Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of power. It recognized the importance of division of labor and specialization. A formal set of rules was bound into the hierarchy structure to insure stability and uniformity. Weber also put forth the notion that organizational behavior is a network of human interactions, where all behavior could be understood by looking at cause and effect.
The emphasis was on establishing a universal set of management principles that could be applied to all organizations. Classical management theory was rigid and mechanistic.
The shortcomings of classical organization theory quickly became apparent. Its major deficiency was that it attempted to explain peoples' motivation to work strictly as a function of economic reward.
Neoclassical Organization Theory The human relations movement evolved as a reaction to the tough, authoritarian structure of classical theory. It addressed many of the problems inherent in classical theory. The most serious objections to classical theory are that it created overconformity and rigidity, thus squelching creativity, individual growth, and motivation.
Neoclassical theory displayed genuine concern for human needs. One of the first experiments that challenged the classical view was conducted by Mayo and Roethlisberger in the late 's at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, Illinois Mayo, While manipulating conditions in the work environment e.
The act of paying attention to employees in a friendly and nonthreatening way was sufficient by itself to increase output. Uris referred to this as the "wart" theory of productivity. Nearly any treatment can make a wart go away--nearly anything will improve productivity.
The Hawthorne experiment is quite disturbing because it cast doubts on our ability to evaluate the efficacy of new management theories. An organization might continually involve itself in the latest management fads to produce a continuous string of Hawthorne effects.
Pascale believes that the Hawthorne effect is often misinterpreted. It is a "parable about researchers and managers manipulating and 'playing tricks' on employees. Writing inBarnard proposed one of the first modern theories of organization by defining organization as a system of consciously coordinated activities.
He stressed in role of the executive in creating an atmosphere where there is coherence of values and purpose. Organizational success was linked to the ability of a leader to create a cohesive environment.Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Their structure leads to the flow of power, authority and responsibility. Power is said to be like love, impossible to define but easy enough to recognize (Martin ) Organization theory Hatch, Mary Jo.
Organizational Theory and Behavior Classical Organization Theory. Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory.
instead of the hierarchical power structure of the organization. Barnard's theory contains. Authority is the right to exercise power, which can be formalized by a state and exercised by way of judges, appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a God or other deities..
A governing body may be labelled an authority e.g. the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority or the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Shafritz states that classical organization theory was the first theory of its kind, and serves as the foundation of other schools organization theory (Shafritz, Ott, & Jang, , p.
32). Classical organization theory includes scientific management approach, bureaucratic approach, and administrative management approach.
Organization-based power refers to the power beyond the range of legitimate authority because of the position which a person has in the organization (Milgram, ). This power can be controlled and transferred by the organization.
Organizational Theory and Behavior Homework #3 October 9, What advancement barriers did Lisa encounter? Although Lisa Weber was a highly qualified, ambitious analyst for Although Lisa Weber was a highly qualified, ambitious analyst for.