Gardner says that our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. We esteem the highly articulate or logical people of our culture. Gardner says that we should also place equal attention on individuals who show gifts in the other intelligences:
Introspection This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities.
This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what one's strengths or weaknesses are, what makes one unique, being able to predict one's own reactions or emotions.
Naturalistic[ edit ] Not part of Gardner's original seven, naturalistic intelligence was proposed by him in It seems to me that the individual who is readily able to recognize flora and fauna, to make other consequential distinctions in the natural world, and to use this ability productively in hunting, in farming, in biological science is exercising an important intelligence and one that is not adequately encompassed in the Summarizing gardner theory list.
This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherersand farmers ; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. Spiritual intelligence Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct, also proposed after the original Summarizing gardner theory in his book.
For example, the theory postulates that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task.
The child who takes more time to master multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside mathematics, or may be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level. Intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner's theory predicts, supporting the prevailing theory of general intelligence rather than multiple intelligences MI.
This challenges the notion of fixed or static intelligence levels that general intelligence tests measure. More importantly, it challenges the notion that intelligence test scores are an accurate predictor for future ability. Definition of intelligence[ edit ] One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc: This practice has been criticized by Robert J.
Sternberg  Eysenck and Scarr. He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least one culture, or as something that a student is interested in. He then added a disclaimer that he has no fixed definition, and his classification is more of an artistic judgment than fact: Ultimately, it would certainly be desirable to have an algorithm for the selection of an intelligence, such that any trained researcher could determine whether a candidate's intelligence met the appropriate criteria.
At present, however, it must be admitted that the selection or rejection of a candidate's intelligence is reminiscent more of an artistic judgment than of a scientific assessment. Gardner argues this causes the former to be needlessly aggrandized. Certain critics are wary of this widening of the definition, saying that it ignores "the connotation of intelligence Thus, studying intelligence becomes difficult, because it diffuses into the broader concept of ability or talent.
Gardner's addition of the naturalistic intelligence and conceptions of the existential and moral intelligences are seen as the fruits of this diffusion. Defenders of the MI theory would argue that this is simply a recognition of the broad scope of inherent mental abilities, and that such an exhaustive scope by nature defies a one-dimensional classification such as an IQ value.
The theory and definitions have been critiqued by Perry D. Klein as being so unclear as to be tautologous and thus unfalsifiable. Having a high musical ability means being good at music while at the same time being good at music is explained by having a high musical ability.
The Richez's studies show a gap between Chinese thought and Western thought.
Those are greek-Latin inventions Platon. Neo-Piagetian criticism[ edit ] Andreas Demetriou suggests that theories which overemphasize the autonomy of the domains are as simplistic as the theories that overemphasize the role of general intelligence and ignore the domains.
He agrees with Gardner that there are indeed domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other. In Demetriou's theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive developmentGardner is criticized for underestimating the effects exerted on the various domains of intelligences by the various subprocesses that define overall processing efficiency, such as speed of processingexecutive functionsworking memoryand meta-cognitive processes underlying self-awareness and self-regulation.
All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the functioning and development of different domains of intelligence.
Their functioning both channels and influences the operation of the general processes. In this context, humans are contrasted to social insects that indeed have a distributed "intelligence" of specialists, and such insects may spread to climates resembling that of their origin but the same species never adapt to a wide range of climates from tropical to temperate by building different types of nests and learning what is edible and what is poisonous.
While some such as the leafcutter ant grow fungi on leaves, they do not cultivate different species in different environments with different farming techniques as human agriculture does. It is therefore argued that human adaptability stems from a general ability to falsify hypotheses and make more generally accurate predictions and adapt behavior thereafter, and not a set of specialized abilities which would only work under specific environmental conditions.
He argues the importance of assessing in an "intelligence-fair" manner. While traditional paper-and-pen examinations favor linguistic and logical skills, there is a need for intelligence-fair measures that value the distinct modalities of thinking and learning that uniquely define each intelligence.
Kaufman points out that IQ tests have measured spatial abilities for 70 years. While IQ tests do give an overall IQ score, they now also give scores for many more narrow abilities.
According to the study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involved a blend of g, of cognitive abilities other than g, and, in some cases, of non-cognitive abilities or of personality characteristics.
In contrast, empirical support for non-g intelligences is either lacking or very poor. She argued that despite this the ideas of multiple non-g intelligences are very attractive to many due to the suggestion that everyone can be smart in some way.
To date, there have been no published studies that offer evidence of the validity of the multiple intelligences.What are the differences between Sternberg's triarchic intelligence theory and Gardner's multiple intelligence theory? Stermberg uses the application of the cognitive perspective to intelligence.
GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences utilizes aspects of cognitive and developmental psychology, anthropology, and sociology to .
The end goal, however, has always been for CHC theory to undergo continual upgrades so it would evolve toward an ever-more accurate summary of human cognitive diversity. With that end in mind, we have attempted to simplify the.
The theory is also referred to as MWI, the relative state formulation, the Everett interpretation, the theory of the universal wavefunction, many-universes interpretation, multiverse theory or just many-worlds. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Many of us are familiar with three general categories in which people learn: visual learners, auditory learners, and kinesthetic learners.
Beyond these three general categories, many theories of and approaches toward human potential have been developed. In his theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI theory), Gardner sought to broaden the scope of human potential beyond the confines of the IQ score and suggested that intelligence has more to do with the capacity for (1) solving problems and (2) fashioning products in a context-rich and naturalistic setting.