Uncertainty reigns supreme in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack, with regard to such things as who were the perpetrators, how did they go about planning a major attack undetected, and finally, was the terror act an isolated instance or the first of a series. The terrorist attacks in Brussels on March 22,are the latest in a string of horrific assaults that seem to be occurring with greater frequency.
Table of Contents Definitions Attacks Against Israel Toxicity As noted in the previous section, the toxicity of chemical agents generally falls somewhere in-between that of the more deadly biological agents and that of conventional weapons, or at the lower end of the scale for weapons of mass destruction.
For example, Kupperman and Trent estimate that, based on "the weight required to produce heavy casualties within a square-mile area under idealized conditions," fuel-air explosives require million grams; fragmentation cluster bombs, 32 million; hydrocyanic acid, 32 million; mustard gas, 3.
Similarly, it has been estimated that it would take grams of the "V" nerve agent, or almost 40 pounds of potassium cyanide, to have an effect on a water supply equivalent to just one gram of typhoid culture SCJ As in the case of biological agents, different types of chemical agents vary considerably in their lethality.
Of the two principal categories of chemical toxins, fluoroacetates and organophosphorous compounds, the latter are widely considered the more lethal At one end of the scale is DFP diisopropyl fluorophosphatedescribed as a "relatively mild poison" Mullen Another possible chemical agent, the organophosphate TEPP, is the most toxic of the commercially available insecticides Jenkins and Rubin The nerve agent sarin, on the other hand, when taken orally, is ten times as toxic as TEPP to humans; according to Berkowitz et al.: A minute after the burst, anyone in an area of over 70, square feet around the burst will have received at least a median lethal dose, and probably much more than that.
In a confined space banquet hall, auditoriumthe effects will be even greater. According to Douglass and Livingstone, "The amount of VX a nerve agent that one can place on the head of a pin is sufficient to produce death in a human being" Livingstone reports that "In tests conducted by the army, one drop of VX absorbed through the skin was enough to kill a dog" Also as in the case of biological agents, it would be equally misleading to extrapolate directly from individual lethal doses to estimates of casualties from mass attacks, given the need for effective delivery.
The ability of terrorists to employ chemical technologies is more dependent upon the target characteristics, the availability of the poisons, and the requirement for an effective delivery and dissemination means than upon the chemicals' intrinsic toxicity Chemical weapons such as nerve agents are generally credited with being capable of causing casualties in the range of hundreds to a few thousand Kupperman and Trent A few authors put the total much higher, in the same range as for biological or even nuclear weapons.
Thus, for example, Douglass and Livingstone write that "Four tons of VX is enough to cause several hundred thousand deaths if released in aerosol form in a crowded urban area" Clark goes even further, stating that "A canister [of VX] dropped from any tall building or sprayed over a large city from a private plane would kill millions" However, most authors appear to agree with Berkowitz et al.
The final characteristic of chemical agents that should be noted here is that, in contrast to biological agents, their effects can be virtually instantaneous.
According to another source, a one-milligram dose of a nerve agent "can usually kill within 15 minutes" Joyner Putative Advantages of Chemical Weapons Despite not being as toxic as the most lethal biological agents, chemical weapons have certain other advantages that may make them more attractive to terrorists.
A number of authors maintain that they are cheaper than biological agents Douglass and Livingstone There can be no doubt, of course, that the manufacture of chemical weapons would be much less expensive than the manufacture of nuclear weapons, for terrorists or for anyone else.
It has also been said that chemical agents are "easier to use" than biological agents Douglass and Livingstone This rather vague claim could refer to a number of different aspects.three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in ; various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia's land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom.
After effects of both the world wars of and (first and second world wars).
|It was a period of eleven months during the French Revolution when the ruling Jacobins employed violence, including mass executions by guillotinein order to intimidate the regime's enemies and compel obedience to the state.|
|Thank you for your faithful readership through the past five years.|
|Acknowledgements||It is in practice since the known recorded history of the world in one way or the other. The terrorists hale this nomenclature for themselves because they justify their actions and strategy to fight against oppression and injustice.|
|This is because terrorism can cause very important problems even though terrorist groups are not clearly linked to states. The presence of non-state actors who can have a real impact on the world makes world politics more difficult.|
as well as post war decolonization which prolonged through s are considered to be the beginning of terrorism. Terrorism research, also called terrorism and counter-terrorism research, is an interdisciplinary academic field which seeks to understand the causes of terrorism, how to prevent it as well as its impact in the broadest sense.
In general, terrorism makes world politics more complicated and difficult. This is because terrorism can cause very important problems even though terrorist groups are not clearly linked to states.
At its lowest point, the S&P had tumbled percent from its closing level on September 10, —the day before the attacks.
But by the end of , the S&P had recovered and was actually. Jan 12, · The terrorist violence that is on the rise today has informed citizen all over the world about different types of terrorism.
Also with the resurgence the world is experiencing of terrorism, the Nation's have been to do what they can to eliminate caninariojana.com: Eye on the World.